Cause & Effect

A few research points for the Cause & Effect book project brief.

Electronic paper – technology used in Amazon Kindle (and similar eBook products) and Motorola F3 mobile phone.

An e-ink screen showing the "ghost" of a previous image

Computing punched cards

The original way of inputting instructions into a computer system

A punched card is a flexible write-once medium that encodes, most commonly, 80 characters of data. Groups or “decks” of cards form programs and collections of data. Users could create cards using a desk-sized keypunch with a typewriter-like keyboard. A typing error generally necessitated repunching an entire card. A single character typo could be corrected by duplicating the card up to the error column, typing the correct character and then duplicating the rest of the card.

Strangely these are really hard to find online although I did find a couple of eBay auctions selling them quite cheaply (just ordered some for myself). Will scour Deptford Market this weekend also as I’d imagine they will have things like this.

Further reading:,0

Interesting 1936 illustration from ‘Do Not Fold, Spindle or Mutilate”: A Cultural History of the Punch Card

Nice type!

(image sourced from


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